How to read an American ruler:
The Year at a glance.......
Unit 1: The Scientific Method
Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis. Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data. Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test. Recognize the slope of the linear graph as the constant in the relationship y=kx and apply this principle in interpreting graphs constructed from data. Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationships between variables. Apply simple mathematical relationships to determine a missing quantity in a mathematical expression, given the two remaining terms (i.e. Speed = Distance/Time).** Distinguish between linear and nonlinear relationships on a graph of data.
**This topic will be taught within Units 2 and 3.
Unit 2: Density and Buoyancy
All objects experience a buoyancy force when immersed in a fluid. Density is mass per unit volume. Calculate the density of substances (regular and irregular solids and liquids) from measurements of mass and volume. The buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid the object has displaced. Predict whether an object will float or sink.
Unit 3: Motion and Forces
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position. Position is defined in relation to some choice of a standard reference point and a set of reference directions. Average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed; the speed of an object along the path traveled can vary. Solve problems involving distance, time and average speed. Velocity of an object must be described by specifying both the direction and the speed of the object. Changes in velocity may be due to changes in speed, direction, or both. Interpret graphs of position versus time and graphs of speed versus time for motion in a single direction. Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity. Force has both direction and magnitude. When an object is subject to two or more forces at once, the result is the cumulative effect of all the forces. When the forces on an object are balanced, the motion of the object does not change. Identify separately the two or more forces that are acting on a single static object, including gravity, elastic forces due to tension or compression in matter, and friction. When the forces on an object are unbalanced, the object will change its velocity (that is, it will speed up, slow down, or change direction). The greater the mass of an object, the more force is needed to achieve the same rate of change in motion. The role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of planets, stars, and the solar system.
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